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Technical Bulletins

ARDEX is committed to being the leading provider of technical support in the field. We believe our responsibility does not end with the manufacture of innovative, specialist solutions. Hence our technical advisers work with contractors and the ARDEX R&D team to provide solutions for specific applications.

Below is a sample of the bulletins available. Contact us for the detailed bulletin or help with anything out of the ordinary, if we don’t already have the answer we will certainly investigate. Call: 1800 224 070.

Tiling Systems

Installation of Large Format Ceramic & Heavy Stone Tiles [TB001]  download

The purpose of this technical bulletin is to raise awareness concerning the trend towards the use of Large Format Ceramic and/or Heavy Stone tiles (excluding thin sheet porcelain tiles) so that appropriate tile design, selection and application can take place with all factors taken into consideration.

Installation of Cultured Stone [TB002a]

Installation of El Dorado Stone [TB002b]

Fixing of Moisture and Thermally Sensitive Natural Stone [TB010]  download

Thin layer natural stone (and also man-made versions) tile finishes are becoming more popular and are used in many varying situations under a variety of climatic conditions within residential and commercial constructions.

Application tricks with ARDEX EG15 Epoxy Grout [TB048]  download

The purpose of this bulletin is to alert you to the causes of complaints from tilers that are using ARDEX Abapoxy grout and to offer suggestions, solutions and explanations to observed problems.

Installation of Self Supporting Sand/Cement Screeds for the Installation of Ceramic Tiling [TB057]  download

There are many situations where the use of a self-supporting (unbonded) screed is required to support new tiling installations. These include traditional mesh reinforced sand & cement screeds or the engineered ARDEX A38 / A48 Rapid Set screed. This Bulletin describes the process of installation of a self-supporting unbonded screed.

Concrete Surface Preparation for Flooring, Membranes & Adhesives [TB058]  download

The surface preparation of concrete prior to the application of flooring compounds, screeds, membranes or adhesives is critical in achieving a quality application.

Bonding of “Quarella” Reconstituted Tiles [TB070]  download

The Quarella tiles are a large format, reconstituted stone tile bonded with an epoxy resin inder. The tile dimension is 600mm x 300mm x 12mm and sometimes, problems with dimensional stability can occur with these types of large format reconstituted tiles. Ardex Australia Pty Ltd has carried out testing to determine a suitable adhesive with which a bond can be achieved without resulting in serious dimensional variations.

Waterproofing & Tiling External Compressed Fibre Cement Sheeted Balconies [TB071]  download

Ardex Australia Pty Ltd have prepared guidelines covering the waterproofing and installation of a ceramic tile surface finish over CFC sheeting on external balconies. The waterproof membrane has the required flexibility to accommodate the anticipated movement in the balcony structure and incorporates required bond breakers and membrane reinforcement across the joints. The bonding and finishing of the ceramic tile surface incorporates adhesives and grouts that also produce a flexible bond while providing the required service performance.

Application of Butynol & Direct Bonding of Tiles [TB077]  download

In both new construction and, particularly in the growing restoration market, there is an increasing need for the installation of a thin film membrane to which ceramic or other types of tile can be directly fixed. This need arises from the lack of available height between the level to be treated and the adjacent surfaces.

Bonding Tiles over H.K. Epoxy Membranes Using ARDEX Ceramic Tile Adhesives [TB091]  download

H.K. Epoxy Seal Pty Ltd manufacture and distribute flexible epoxy waterproofing membranes which are used in the waterproofing of internal wet areas. Ardex Australia Pty Ltd have carried out adhesion testing using selected Ardex ceramic tile adhesives applied over the H.K. Epoxy Seal membranes to determine their suitability in accordance with International Standard ISO13007 (which supercedes AS4992).

The effect of ambient conditions on the performance of Tile Adhesives, Grouts, Flooring Cements and Liquid Applied Membranes [TB097]  download

This Technical Bulletin outlines some weather related product issues that have been the subject of inquiries to Ardex’s Technical Services, but also observations by Ardex’s Research & Development Department. These concerns will be looked at, and solutions provided to assist in obtaining optimal product performance.

Differential Movement and Tile Finishes [TB099]

Tiling Adhesives for use Adjacent to Fireplaces [TB111]  download

The National Construction Code Series (nominally called the Building Code of Australia BCA) in section (2012 issue) require that fireplaces are installed in accordance with AS/NZS 2918. This means they have a non-combustible and fire retarded hearth with a minimum width around 400mm from the fire box or grate and 150mm from the sides and back.

Issues with Application of Ardex Products over Pebblecrete [TB112]

Tiling over Polyester – Fibreglass & other Polymer Surfaces [TB114]  download

Situations arise where a customer may want to tile over rigid surfaces made of polyester resin, phenol or urea-formaldehyde (melamine, Laminex® , Formica® etc.), acrylic or Lexan® sheeting or similar surfaces. The most common cases are polyester or acrylic shower bases, pool copings and existing bench tops. The adhesion of tile adhesives on these surfaces is problematic, and in this bulletin we shall briefly look at this application.

Application of Ceramic Tiles over Vinyl & Cork floors [TB115]  download

When remodelling a building, most commonly residential or office kitchen areas, the question will arise about applying suitable adhesives for laying ceramic tiles directly over vinyl or cork tiles. Whilst this is technically feasible to do with several Ardex adhesives, there are a number of considerations that need to be looked before attempting this application. In this bulletin we will discuss the procedures that are necessary to achieve a long lasting installation.

 Application of Tiles over Pre-existing Tiles [TB117]  download

In internal applications it is possible to apply ceramic tiles over existing or in-situ tile finishes and Ardex recommends a number of adhesive tile systems that allow this application to be done. This bulletin discusses some of the issues with this method of laying tiles that will assist in achieving a satisfactory result.

Tiling over previously Painted Surfaces [TB118]  download

A common situation encountered when doing renovations is the temptation to apply ceramic tiles over previously painted surfaces. Whilst some Ardex adhesives will generally adhere to painted surfaces, the installer needs to consider that this is not an ideal substrate for tiles to be applied to and it is best to remove it.

Why Premixed Adhesives are not recommended over Waterproofing Membranes [TB120]  download

A commonly asked question is can we use premixed adhesives with the waterproof membrane? Assuming that the membrane is in fact capable of taking an adhesive and bonding successfully, the choice of tile adhesives is restricted to cement based materials. Premixed and mastics are not suitable for use with membranes and this bulletin explains the issues.

Building up Levels, Creating Falls or Smoothing Surfaces prior to Tiling [TB121]

Laying Porcelain Tiles [TB129]  download

Correct installation of porcelain tiles requires a few specialised techniques to ensure that a good quality installation results and this bulletin gives some guidance to achieve this.

Sources of Grout Discolouration Real and Perceived [TB130]  download

One of the most common complaints that TSD receives is discoloured and patchy cementitious grout. The response of the complainant is nearly always that our grout is faulty, but this simplistic assertion ignores the fact that we have a Quality Control regime which is intended to pick up this type of issue. When we receive the dry grout powder to test, we always find that it mixes normally and dries to a consistent colour. Therefore with the exception of a few unusual circumstances, the problem is related to something which has happened on site. There can be a number of causes of this phenomena and this bulletin will look at the issues involved.

Application of Ardex Optima & X56 to Metal Surfaces for Tiling [TB133]  download

In some situations tiling may be done over metal surfaces. Examples of this are ship decks, metal fittings on wall cappings or stair treads and in this bulletin we will look at the issues involved in this application.

Application of Ceramic Tiles to Stair Treads & Landing Treads – Timber and Metal [TB136]  download

In order to match to the surrounding floor spaces, provide a hard covering, or to create a new appearance, ceramic tiles are being installed onto staircase treads. These staircases can be masonry, timber or even metal and whilst traditional masonry stairs are no different to a concrete subfloor in terms of application, timber and metal substrates create a series of challenges for the tile adhesive and grouts. In this bulletin we will examine some of those challenges and look at possible solutions to the problems of tiling onto stair treads.

Water Chemistry for Cement Based Adhesives & Grouts in Tiled Swimming Pools [TB143] download

The purpose of this bulletin is to provide an initial understanding the effect of some of the chemicals used in swimming pool water have on cement based adhesives and grouts used with ceramic tile finishes. The traditional chemicals of concern are the Calcium based and the Sulphate based compounds that affect the mineralogy of the tile grouts and adhesives.

Issues with Fixing Schistose and Layered Stacked Stone Tiles [TB144]  download

The subject of this bulletin is cladding tiles made from rocks known as Schists.

Installation of Ardex DS40 Sound Reduction Matting in Internal Installations [TB147]  download

There is a statuary (Construction Code of Australia) requirement in both new builds and restoration construction for the installation of soundproofing in domestic residences upper floors. The ARDEX DS40 mat system allows the economic rapid installation of a proven sound reduction de-coupling system in both wet and dry areas within the residence. This bulletin provides a step by step process of the installation for the two principal areas within a domestic residence.

Mechanical fixing of Stack Stone Cladding Tiles to Wall Substrates [TB148]  download

Technical Bulletin TB001 “Installation of Large Format and Heavy Stone Tiles” discusses the concerns associated with fixing heavy cladding tiles to wall substrates using adhesives only. The main issue is the capability of the wall substrate to support the weight of the tile finish and any associated applied surface preparation material (e.g. cement render).

Building Code of Australia [TB153]

Tiling to AAC (Hebel) Concrete Substrates [TB154]  download

Aerated Autoclaved Concrete (AAC) is more commonly known by the trade names CSR Hebel® or YTong (and various other Sino imported products).This lightweight concrete has some different properties compared to a conventional concrete and this bulletin outlines the procedures to use when applying tile finishes with or without a waterproofing system.

Issues with Resin Backed Tiles [TB161]

Ceramic Tiling with Optima, Isoflex and X56 on Particleboard / Plywood Sheet Timber Flooring [TB168]  download

The key to success, when installing ARDEX tiling adhesive products is to achieve a good bond between the sheet timber substrate (i.e. particleboard) and the floor covering. Proper preparation of the surface is the most important factor in achieving this bond.

AS4992 Tile Adhesive Classification System [TB169]

Bonding of “Alfresco Pavers” & “Veneto Honed Tiles” [TB171]

Tiling with Underfloor Heating Systems [TB176]  download

The purpose of this Technical Bulletin is to provide guidance on suitable product selection and methodology that would typically be employed to enable the application of heating cables above concrete, compressed fibre cement and timber floors prior to tiling.

Solvent Grout Sealers and Rubberised Tile Adhesives [TB179]

Treatment and Tiling over Existing Tiles of Swimming Pool Internals [TB181]

Tiling Installation on Universal Shower Base Trays [TB182]

Bonding Ceramic Tiles to Wetseal Enviro-Coat DSMR 408 and Enviro-Coat ISMR 508 Waterproofing Membrane Systems [TB184]

Wet Bedding of Dense Pavers with Abacrete Mortar [TB185]

Cleaning / Maintenance of Ardex Abapoxy Grout surfaces [TB186]

Cement Render or Screed Application over Wetseal Topcoat 300 [TB191]

Fixing of Decor8 Bamboo Mosaic Tiles [TB196]

Pool Coping and Water Line Tiling – Fibreglass and Concrete Swimming Pools [TB198]  download

A typical construction method for swimming pools is to install a pre-formed fibreglass liner into the ground, usually with a concrete surface or Compressed Fibre-Cement (CFC) sheet surround deck. This liner has a visible horizontal top edge around 100-150mm wide where the coping tiles are to be laid. It is a common request made to Ardex to supply an adhesive that will bond a coping tile to the top edge of the pool, and often the inquirer wants to span the joint between the liner and the surround. In this bulletin we will examine why such a course of action is not a sound practice, and some suggested ways to install tiles or ‘pavers’ in this situation. We will also briefly look at bonding waterline tiles within the pool as well.

Vitreous Porcelain Tiles [TB201]  download

The properties of a tile’s surface, controls the ability of the adhesive to form a bond to its rear face. These differences are one of the controlling factors that determines the properties and types of tile adhesive recommended for the installation. Recent trends in porcelain tile manufacture, have seen a move towards faster firing times, and also higher firing temperatures. This has apparently altered the tiles and as a result, changes are required in how these tiles are used. In this bulletin we will examine some features of highly vitrified tiles and the types of adhesives required to bond them.

Epoxy Priming & Rising Damp or Construction Moisture Suppression System using WPM300 for Ceramic Tile Installations [TB216]

Ceramic Tiling Fibre-Cement Sheeted Timber Flooring [TB218]  download

A common industry practice has been to cover timber floor substrates with fibre cement sheet underlays prior to adhesive fixing of ceramic tile finishes. The key to success when installing ARDEX tiling adhesive products on a flexible surface like ‘timber’; is to achieve a good bond between the substrate and the flooring cover, but also to minimise the vertical movement that occurs between the floor joists.

Application of Ceramic Tiles onto Dincel Corefilled Plastic Blockwork [TB219]  download

This technical bulletin lists the approved Ardex products for direct tiling of internal walls constructed from the Dincel® system and also application of a waterproof membrane system to the wall-floor junction. Waterproofing can also be applied to wet area walls if required by the construction specification or design.

Checklist of Fibre-Cement Sheets and their Intended Usages [TB220] 

An Opinion Concerning the Use of Sealers and Ardex Adhesives and the Difference between Sealers and Waterproofing Materials [TB222]  download

Ardex has had a number of inquiries concerning the use of tile sealers and in particular six sided sealing of stone tiles before installation. The following discussion gives Ardex’s opinion and attitude to the use of sealers and whether they are applicable to be used with Ardex tile adhesives.

Quick Checks for Natural Stone Tiles – Dead Loads and Environmental Stability [TB223]  download

When natural stone tiles are recommended for an installation, commonly the properties of the tiles are not fully considered. Two of these properties, are moisture sensitivity (marking and deformation) and tile dead load on a square metre basis. These topics have separate detailed Technical Bulletins to explain various aspects (Ardex Technical Bulletins TB001, 010 and 148), but this bulletin gives some basic tools that can be used to check these properties.

Fixing Thin and Large Format Sheet Porcelain Tiles [TB224]  download

Since approximately 2006, several ranges of very large format, wafer thin porcelain tiles have come onto the market. They originated in Italy, and these tiles are manufactured on specialised machines which have since been exported to other areas. This bulletin discusses some of the installation issues with these tiles and also recommendations for adhesive systems.

Effects of Alkaline Containing Materials on Glass Mesh Back Tiles [TB228]  download

This bulletin looks at the potential for decomposition of the glass due to alkaline attack from lime in the adhesive, and subsequent problems with the tile bond due to changes and decomposition of the backing, and resistance to damage because of loss of mechanical re-inforcement.

Tile Finishes – Flood Water Immersion [TB229]  download

Since the recent flood episodes throughout much of Eastern Australia, the questions being asked of the building industry include queries regarding the effect the flood water would have had over wall and floor tile finishes, particularly those in residential dwellings. The short answer is “it depends”. This paper is an attempt to raise awareness of the factors involved regarding typical tile installations.

Concrete Block Walls – Tile Finishes [TB230]  download

The building industry is calling for the adhesive fixing of tiles to the surfaces of these blocks against published advice such as provided by AS3958, which directs the concrete block walls be rendered prior to adhesive fixing the tiles. By eliminating the render, there are considerable cost and time savings benefits so why render?

Applications for ARDEX E 90 Improver and Abalastic with ARDEX Ceramic Tile Adhesives [TB231]  download

The Ardex tile adhesives can be used in a wide range of situations as one part materials, but for some situations Ardex recommends that an additive liquid is used to improve the cement properties. Examples of these situations include high stress or load environments, external applications or immersion and flexible substrates.

Application of Tiling Materials and Waterproof Membranes to Resin Matric Shower Bases [TB238]  download

The historical method for creating a shower base with falls is to lay a sand-cement screed with a slope of between 1:60 and 1:80 to waste. This base is then waterproofed and tiled to create the finished shower enclosure. Recent work by ARDEX has shown that there are systems that can be used to tile these bases and this bulletin discusses the issue and systems.

Topping & Screed Systems [TB244]  download

Topping screeds are a necessary part of the construction process as a mechanism to remove variations in the heights of floors, to create falls to drainage systems and to provide flat /planar surfaces for the selected floor finishes.

Patching and Rendering of Concrete, Concrete Blockwork & Bricks, Before Tiling or Façade Finish Waterproofing [TB249]  download

This bulletin discusses the application of ARDEX renders and repair mortars, along with appropriate membranes for tiling, and also feature finish waterproofing materials applied to facades.

Injection of Crack Repair Resin Under Drummy Tiles [TB252]  download

In this bulletin we will examine different options using the ARDEX and also Dunlop branded crack injection resins.

Adhesive Consideration for Unstable Stone And Composite Tiles [TB253]  download

When considering the types of adhesives for bonding sensitive tiles, as described in Technical Bulletin TB010, there are a range of underlying issues and this bulletin highlights the points.

Waterproofing Systems

Hydrostatic Pressure Testing of WPM256/WPM300 Membrane System [TB004]

STS8 White – Underwater Repairs to Tiling [TB042]

Installation of Bitumen Sheet Membrane over Foam Insulation. Reverse IRMA roof membrane [TB060]

Waterproofing Rail & Bridge Structures against Spalling [TB072]

Misconceptions about Membrane Flexibilities [TB073]  download

There is a wide misconception regarding the elongation properties of waterproof membranes and their ability to bridge cracks that form post membrane application. This bulletin endeavours to clarify the real meaning of elongation and elasticity in relation to bridging properties.

Cement Render or Screed Application over Ardex WPM300 Waterproofing [TB075]

Waterproofing Systems for Straw Bale Construction Dwellings [TB076]

Treatment of Swimming Pool Internals [TB088]  download

This Information Sheet is designed to detail the treatments necessary for the surface preparation and application of a waterproof membrane finish to a newly constructed concrete swimming pool prior to the application of a tiled finish.

Waterproofing Potable Water Tanks with WPM300 [TB098]

Maintenance of Surfaces Sealed with WPM163 [TB103]

Not all Waterproofing Membranes are made the same [TB113]  download

In this bulletin we will have a general overview of membrane types and general recommendations for tile adhesives.

Waterproofing of Internal Water Resistant Particleboards and Plywood [TB119]  download

A commonly received inquiry to Ardex Technical Services involves the application of a waterproof membrane system suitable for tiling in these situations. In this bulletin we will look at some systems that could be used in these cases.

Application of Membranes over Existing Tiles in Internal Wet Areas [TB122]  download

In some situations installers may not want to remove a tile bed to re-instate a waterproof membrane. In this case the installer will wish to apply a new membrane over the old tiles prior to laying the new tile bed. Whilst technically feasible there are a number of issues that need to be considered before carrying out this procedure and the following bulletin briefly examines them.

Preparation for Compressed Fibre Cement Sheet [TB123]  download

Compressed Fibre-Cement Sheet is a common and durable flooring material used for decks, verandahs and internal floors. It is particularly effective when used in wet-area floors such as bathrooms and showers. In this bulletin we will look at the surface preparation required to obtain a good bond for ceramic tile adhesives and membranes.

Tiling over Chevaline Dexx Membrane System [TB126]

Reinstatement of Concrete Piers [TB128]

How to Reconstruct, Waterproof & Tile a Shower Recess [TB132]  download

This “How To” brochure details the ideal procedure to reconstruct a domestic shower recess. Included are various surfaces likely to exist in a normal building structure and various types of recess available on the Australian market. If other substrates or shower recess types are encountered, simply contact the Ardex office in your state for expert advice about your particular requirements. In all situations discussed in this bulletin, the waterproofing membrane is applied over a mortar screed that has been laid to falls.

Sealing Grease and Oil Contaminated Concrete Surfaces [TB139]

Application of Smoothing Cements or Screeds over Wet Seal Polyester – Fibreglass Epoxy Top Coat Waterproofing System [TB141]

Positive Waterproofing of Concrete Block Retaining Walls – WPM172 & WPM179 [TB145]

Maintenance Recommendations for Ardex 185 Mineral Finish [TB149]

Method statement for WPM256/WPM300 in Below Grade Installations [TB155]

Ardex Smoothing Cements, Repair Mortars & Bulk Fills suitable for use with Ardex External Membranes [TB156]

Facade Restoration [TB189]

Maintenance Recommendations for Liquid Applied Membranes [TB208]  download

This document supplies recommended items and time intervals that shall be adhered to for the ongoing maintenance and performance of a roof or other area that has been coated with a liquid applied membrane as the final finished surface. The adherence to these procedures will ensure the continued coverage of the warranty during the nominated period.

Maintenance Procedures for Butynol Membranes [TB213]

Tiling and Waterproofing over James Hardie Scyon Secura Flooring Sheets [TB215]  download

The following document details the recommended systems for waterproofing and tiling in an internal wet area and external balcony floor applications (where a habitable space is below), and also non-waterproofed tiled applications using the correct James Hardie Scyon™ Secura™ flooring product. It replaces Ardex Technical Bulletin TB193, all versions.

Guide for Reinstatement Procedures for Ardex Undertile Membranes [TB225]  download

The purpose of this bulletin is to outline the procedures recommended by Ardex Australia Pty Ltd for the reinstatement of Ardex liquid undertile waterproofing membranes which have been damaged.

Ardex Construction Detail Bandage [TB226]

Bonding Ceramic Tiles to Wet Seal Waterproofing Membrane Systems [TB227] download

ARDEX Australia Pty Ltd has carried out extensive testing to determine the effectiveness of a number of ceramic tile adhesives when applied over the different types of ‘Wet-seal’ waterproofing membrane systems.

Screeds & Waterproofing Membranes [TB243] download

This bulletin is a brief introduction to membranes to be used with either bonded or unbonded toppings and should be read in conjunction with TB244 Screed System.

Butynol Rubber Membrane On Concrete Roofs [TB245] download

Inquiries regarding the installation of Ardex Butynol Rubber Sheet Membrane over concrete roof slabs have included a number of frequently asked questions that are addressed in this bulletin.

Maintenance Procedures for Exposed Bituminous Sheet Membranes [TB247] download

The long successful history of bituminous sheet membranes installations as roofing membranes has led to these membrane systems being taken for granted with little or no maintenance regime to ensure the longevity and water tightness of the membrane system. This document provides guidelines of a maintenance procedure for these membranes that may relate to the warranty period.

Considerations Around Waterproofing and Tiling Over Existing Tiled Surfaces - Externally [TB251] download

A quite common inquiry concerns the application of a waterproof membrane and normally new tiles, over an existing tiled surface, normally with its own membrane and possibly screed as well.

Flooring Systems

The ARDEX Moisture Barrier Systems [TB006] download

Internal concrete substrates come in many different forms – new concrete, old concrete, on grade, below grade, suspended floors. These internal floors then require application of many varied types of floor coverings – parquet, rubber flooring, sheet & tile vinyl flooring, direct stick carpet, cork etc.

Preparation of Walls & Floors in Wet Areas of Health Care Facilities to Receive Sheet Vinyl Coverings. ARDEX FLC & Membranes [TB012D]  download

This bulletin defines the systems that Ardex recommends for use in wet areas where falls to waste, a waterproof membrane and sheet vinyl are to be installed.

Levelling over Internal Dry Timber Surfaces or Underlay Sheets using K15, Arditex NA & Feather Finish [TB015]  download

One of the most common problems in renovation and remodelling of existing buildings is the levelling and smoothing of wooden subfloors to receive hard floor coverings, floating floors, and carpet.

Mesh Reinforced K15 over Tongue & Groove Wooden Subfloors [TB016] download

One of the most common problems in renovation and remodelling of existing buildings is the levelling and smoothing of wooden subfloors to receive floor coverings.

Levelling over Ceramic Tiles & Terrazzo using Ardex K15, A55, K12, K10, Arditex NA & Feather Finish [TB017]  download

Successful topping systems over ceramic tiles or terrazzo rely on the integrity and bond of the original tiles to the substrate. Any loose or drummy tiles must be removed, the surface cleaned, and then filled with a levelling cement plus aggregate mixture, or ARDEX A45 repair mortar.

ARDEX Smoothing Cements – Light Weight Bulk Fill [TB018]  download

The use of a lightweight “Rapid Dry” screed in conjunction with the application of floor coverings is a fast track system with the added advantage of minimising additional weight loading to the subfloor.

Ardex Self Levelling Cements Extreme Weather Precautions [TB022A]  download

Throughout any year we experience many climatic changes from snow, ice and sleet in our Southern States to heat waves, high humidity and monsoonal rains in our Northern States. The installation procedures for floor levelling cements and floor coverings need to be constantly monitored and modified to suit these climatic changes.

Creating Dead Level Floors with Ardex Floor Smoothing cements [TB025]

Ardex K15 for Static Control Sheet Vinyl Flooring Installation [TB026]

Ardex K15, K12 New, K80 or K55 for High Stress Applications including Castor Wheels and Heavy Rolling Loads, Rubber Matting Floors & Floors subject to Vibrations [TB028] download

Floors can be subjected to high stress environments, and so the underlayment and floor coverings must be able withstand these conditions.

Ardex Floor Levelling Cements over Heated Substrates. K15, K80, K11, K12, A55 & Arditex NA [TB029]  download

Subfloor heating is becoming a popular climate control medium offering the client many benefits and creature comforts. Installing flooring over heated subfloors requires all the components to be able to accommodate the thermal variations associated with this flooring concept. The forces and thermal movement associated with heated subfloors can place additional stresses onto components within the heated subfloor and floor coverings.

Ardex K15, K12 & Arditex NA over Internal Compressed Fibre Cement Sheet [TB030]

Levelling Floors for the Installation of Parquetry Wooden Blockwork & Direct Stick Timber Flooring [TB036]  download

The resurgence and appeal of parquet and directly adhered timber flooring combined with consumer demands for a better finish and smoother flatter floors, a greater need in precision for pre-levelling prior to installing new timber flooring is required.

Old Adhesives – Know the Risk of Levelling or Tiling over [TB037]  download

One of the most common inquiries Ardex Technical Services receives, involves whether or not old adhesives must be removed from the subfloor or the walls prior to the application of floor levelling cements or ceramic tile adhesives. Removal of these types of residue is one of the more expensive and difficult areas of substrate preparation, but is critical to achieve a good final result.

Sub Floor Preparation – The Key to Successful Flooring Installations [TB039]

Sub Floor Preparation – Sources of Moisture & Damp Slab problems [TB040]  download

Problems with excessive moisture in both new and old concrete substrates have been around for many years, causing concerns to the contractor, layer, and client. They often result in costly blowups and failures – which seem to be more prevalent in recent times.

Proper Sub Floor Preparation for Ardex Floor Levellers [TB041]  download

The key to success when installing ARDEX products, is to achieve a good bond between the substrate and the underlayment or topping and also flooring adhesives (this includes membranes and tile adhesives as well). Proper preparation of the surface is the most important factor in achieving this bond.

Movement and Control Joints in Concrete & Toppings [TB050]  download

The flooring contractor is often asked to complete building works that goes against Building Standards and good practice. One of the most commonly asked for repair procedures is for products and methods to fill in movement joints in concrete.

Installation of Strip Timber and Parquetry Flooring over Moisture Barrier Prepared Concrete [TB053]

Overlaying Magnesite Flooring [TB078]  download

In this Technical Bulletin we shall discuss the issues relating to Magnesite and similar flooring materials as Ardex Technical Services receives inquiries relating to applying toppings for vinyl or carpet and also tiling over such substrates. This is commonly where the building occupiers are looking at renovations of existing floors, but occasionally new installations as well.

Installation of New Sheet Vinyl over Existing Resilient Sheet or Tile Coverings [TB080] download

Contractors should be aware of the requirements of the relevant Flooring Standards, the flooring manufacturer, and the issues of adhering a non absorbent covering such as sheet vinyl, to an non-absorbent surface such as an existing resilient sheet or tile covering using water base adhesives.

Drying Times of New Concrete Slabs prior to Laying Vinyl Flooring [TB081]

Silicate based Concrete Waterproofing Treatments & Ardex Flooring Products [TB082]

Water effects on Ardex Ardurapid Products [TB084]

Ardex K15, K80 or K301 Levelling of Cool Room Floors to Receive Sheet Vinyl Coverings or Epoxy Coatings [TB086]  download

Cool Room floors often require the application of sheet vinyl flooring or an epoxy or paint finish. These coverings provide a surface which is easy to keep to keep clean and hygienic.

Effects of Ambient Conditions on the Performance of Ardex Products [TB097]  download

This Technical Bulletin outlines some weather related product issues that have been the subject of inquiries to Ardex’s Technical Services, but also observations by Ardex’s Research & Development Department. These concerns will be looked at, and solutions provided to assist in obtaining optimal product performance.

Arditex, K15 & K10 Underlayments over Steel or Aluminium Decking and Nautical Vessels [TB100]  download

Warehouse renovations, ocean-going vessels, off shore oilrigs and other structures often require a high quality floor (wood parquet, vinyl tile) over metal decking. Such flooring requires a very smooth, hard and durable underlayment to assure structural and aesthetic success.

Deep Filling & Ramping of Sub Floors [TB102]  download

Floor levelling cements are commonly seen as a thin topping material applied prior to the application of the final floor covering. However, these materials can also be used as a bulk filler when mixed with a suitable aggregate filler. In this bulletin different systems will be highlighted that allow the applicator to use filled levellers and tackle these situations.

Mixing and General Application Principles for Laying Floor Smoothing Cements [TB104]  download

This bulletin discusses the mixing and general applications principles for laying Ardex Flooring Smoothing Cements including Ardex K15, K80, A55, K250, K11, K12, K301 and K250. The application discussed is smoothing over concrete substrates using hand methods, but other surfaces can be topped, or the material pumped and advice on these specialist procedures is available from Ardex Technical Services.

Application of Ardex K15, K12, K11or Arditex NASelf Smoothing Cement over Lightweight Autoclave Concrete [TB105]  download

Light weight construction methods have seen the application of aerated autoclaved concrete panels (i.e. Hebel) in flooring applications. The primary features of this type of material that are of concern to flooring installers are their very high porosity, and relatively low compressive strength compared to concrete.

Guidelines for Estimating Quantities of Ardex Flooring Products [TB107]  download

A common question Ardex Technical Services receives concerns the quantities and coverage of its flooring products, including levelling cements and primers. In this bulletin we will look at some examples of working out coverage for a range of Ardex products when used in typical applications.

Levelling over Existing Epoxy Coatings with Ardex K15, K10, K12 or K55 [TB108]  download

The ARDEX FLC topping system over epoxy coatings relies on the integrity, bond of the epoxy coating and the compatibility of the epoxy coating to accept new coatings.

Applying Ardex Rapid Cure Products in Hot Weather [TB109]

Application of Ardex Floor Smoothing Cements with Tiling Installations [TB110]

Common Practices Producing Floor Problems when Installing Floor Smoothing Cements [TB131]

The Issues with using Ardex K15 and Other Underlayment Type Smoothing Cements as a Wearing Surface ‘Feature Floor’ [TB135]

Ardex Underlayments – Levelling of Floors for the Installation of High Build Epoxy, Polyurethane and Paint Coatings [TB140]  download

Dry internal utility areas, walkways, plant rooms, domestic car garages etc., often require an epoxy or paint finish as a protective coating. However, industrial floor coatings and paint finishes will mirror the original concrete surface, and unevenness and pitted surfaces look unsightly and result in high cleaning costs.

Applications for Ardex E25 & Abalastic with Ardex Smoothing Cements [TB151]

Silica Sol Concrete Water Proofing Treatment & Ardex Flooring Products [TB152]

Ardex Smoothing Cements- Reading Product Codes [TB157]

Issues with Sand-Cement Screeds as Substrates for Non-Ceramic Tile Flooring Systems [TB159]  download

From time to time Ardex encounters jobs where resilient flooring such as sheet or strip vinyl, linoleum, bonded timber, or a coating system such as epoxy has been specified to be applied over a sand-cement screed. These are used because they are egregiously perceived to be a cheaper alternative to engineered cement systems, and can be installed by less technical trades. This bulletin discusses some of the issues and problems with this substrate when used with vinyl floor coverings.

Use of Ardex Smoothing Cements as Wear Surface Floors over Heated Subfloors [TB160]

Issues with Asbestos containing Substrates [TB162]

Incontinence Barriers for Concrete Floors in Health Care Institutions [TB164]  download

A common requirement in aged care facilities is a cleaning and urine resistance sealer for concrete floors under carpet and similar pervious floor coverings. The sealer needs to be low maintenance and be compatible with direct bond and pressure sensitive carpet adhesives.

Smoothing Concrete Pool Surrounds for Installation of Safety Matting [TB167]

Epoxy Priming Systems for Ardex K80, Ardex K301 and Ardex K1, K1 ‘Floorplus’ or K2 Pandomo Systems [TB170]

Green Slab Concrete, Construction Moisture Suppression System using Ardex WPM300 [TB172]  download

This bulletin describes a moisture suppression systems for green slabs based around ARDEX WPM 300 Hydrepoxy or ARDEX WPM 368.

Rain Affected Surfaces [TB173]

Preparation of Walls & Floors in Wet Areas of Health Care Facilities to receive Sheet Vinyl Coverings using Ardex FLC, Waterproof Membranes and Adhesives [TB178]  download

The elimination of trip hazards when entering wet areas and also the shower whilst maintaining falls to floor wastes is imperative. With previous ceramic tiling systems, the minimum screed height (25mm typically) often resulted in trip hazards and steep ramps at entranceways with the obvious safety hazards of “wet sloping hard surfaces”.

Applications of Smoothing Cements as Hard – Usage Wear Surfaces [TB187] 

Smoothing Cement – Moisture Barrier Systems [TB192]  download

Concrete Substrates come in many different forms – new concrete, old concrete, on grade, below grade, suspended floors. These floors then require application of many varied types of bonded floor coverings – parquet, rubber flooring, sheet & tile vinyl flooring, direct stick carpet, cork etc.

Application for Arditex & Feather Finish over Internal Dry Timber Surfaces in Rail Carriages, Motor Omnibuses & Building Elevators [TB194]

Smoothing Cements over Flexible Waterproof Membranes & Similar Flexible Materials [TB199]  download

Ardex gets inquiries on a fairly regular basis as to whether smoothing cements can be applied over flexible waterproof membranes. This is usually because the floor slopes (falls to waste usually) have not be set correctly before the waterproofing has gone down, or because the membrane has too rough a surface for the floor covering.

Application of Ardex Arditex NA over Old Adhesive Residues [TB200]  download

A relatively common situation is a subfloor that’s contaminated with old adhesive residues from flooring systems such as vinyl or carpet. The normal and preferred method of dealing with this contamination is to mechanically prepare the subfloor. Removing these residues and achieving an open pored surface increases the number of possible smoothing cements, and related product choices that can be installed over the substrate.

Creating Ramps on External Subfloors with Ardex Floor Leveling Cements [TB204]

Preparation of Seismic Damaged Concrete Floors for Installation of Underlayments and Floor Coverings [TB206] download

This bulletin gives some general guidelines for NON-STRUCTURAL repairs to concrete floors which have cracks that result from ground movements.

Preparation of Seismic Damaged Concrete Floors prior to Installation of Underlayments with Dulux Floor Coatings [TB209]

Use of Densifiers with Smoothing Cement Wear and Feature Floors [TB210]

Preparation of Subfloors in Shielded Medical Imaging Rooms [TB211]

Ardex Moisture Barrier System used with Patch Mortar [TB212]

Silica Sol Concrete Waterproofing Treatments & Ardex Flooring Products [TB214]

Primer – Bonding Bridges for A 38 Screeds [TB248] download

This bulletin describes the acceptable bonding bridge – primer coat additive that can be used with ARDEX A38 engineered screed when applied to masonry substrates.

Primer – Bonding Bridges for A 48 Screeds [TB250] download

This bulletin describes the acceptable bonding bridge – primer coat additive that can be used with ARDEX A48 pre-blended and bagged engineered screed applied onto a masonry substrate. Note: The A48 bonding bridge is not mixed in the same way as the A38 system described in TB248; do not dilute the A48 blend with extra aggregate to make the slurry coat.

Technical Papers

Issues with Fixing Schistose Stacked Stone Tiles [TP001]

Issues with Determination of Adhesive Bed Coverage Stack Stone Glue and Mosaic Mesh Adhesive [TP002]

Properties of Fibre Cement Sheeting as a Substrate for Tiling [TP004]

Stability problems with Natural Stone Tiles [TP005] download

In this paper we will examine some of the issues related to thermal and moisture stability, using examples of some natural rock tiles that Ardex has seen in the last few years.

Reactive Silica Based Waterproofing Effects on Ardex Systems [TP006]


Ten Common Misconceptions [TB237] download

This bulletin looks at what we think are the top 10 erroneous beliefs, the negative effects they have, and what the counter arguments are.